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College Joins Consortium Universities Studying Slavery

Posted by: Julia Eichelberger | June 7, 2018 | No Comment |

Bravo! C of C has formally joined a consortium of universities committed to studying the interconnections between slavery and their institutions’ histories. Southern Studies faculty have been urging the President and the Provost to join this consortium; of course we’re very happy the College has joined and posted this official announcement on The College Today.

The College Joins Collegiate Consortium Studying Slavery

Below is a statement we wrote about why C of C is joining USS. This is now posted on the USS website (linked in the article above):

“College of Charleston students and faculty are researching slavery and its legacies in departments and programs across campus, including History, English, African American Studies, Art and Architectural History, Historic Preservation and Community Planning, Latin American and Caribbean Studies, Teacher Education, Southern Studies, Religious Studies, Music, Political Science, Archaeology, Anthropology, Sociology, Jewish Studies, the Charleston Jazz Initiative, the First-Year Experience, and the Sustainability Literacy Institute. Dozens of historic buildings on the school’s campus, containing a wealth of historical material, are inspiring students and faculty to research the individuals who constructed them, including enslaved laborers. Avery Research Center, a highly significant archive and community leader housed in another historic structure, works to “collect, preserve, and promote the unique history and culture of the African diaspora, with emphasis on Charleston and the South Carolina Lowcountry.” The College’s Addlestone Library houses the school’s Special Collections and the South Carolina Historical Society, both containing extensive archival material documenting the history of slavery in the region. Addlestone’s Lowcountry Digital Library is continuously digitizing more archival materials and creating ambitious open-access online exhibits, such as African Passages, Lowcountry Adaptations.

For two decades the Program in the Carolina Lowcoutry and Atlantic World (CLAW) has promoted scholarship and public events related to the history of slavery. Recent international conferences include Transforming Public History: From Charleston to the Atlantic World(2017) and Freedoms Gained and Lost: Reinterpreting Reconstruction in the Atlantic World (2018).

The College’s membership in Universities Studying Slavery will spur us to be more intentional in disseminating our research and in our collaborations within and beyond our institution. More College of Charleston initiatives will be announced in the coming months. We look forward to a mutually beneficial relationship with USS as we continue to develop an in-depth and honest account of our past.”

We’ll be reporting on further initiatives as they develop. I’ll close with the last sentence we wrote for the USS announcement, which did not make it on their website:

As we deepen our understanding of slavery and its continuing impact, we will use our picturesque and historic campus as a transformative, empowering site of education and restoration.

under: Uncategorized

Patricia Ploehn explains her team’s design, “Shrine to African Ancestors.”

In three recent events at C of C, our faculty and students are hard at work exploring the past, telling the truth, and looking for ways to honor ancestors who have often been overlooked or disremembered.

This exhibit consisted of designs created by students in a course called “The Architecture of Memory: Memorials, Monuments, and Museums” that Dr. Nathaniel Walker teaches. After studying a variety of memorial spaces from all over the world, students were asked to design a memorial that could be placed in Marion Square as an answer to the Calhoun statue. Their designs will be on display throughout the summer. Please stop by and prepare to be inspired.

  • A historical marker and portrait honoring Septima Clark were both unveiled on May 3. C of C’s President, Provost, and Board of Trustees chair were all on hand, along with a good many Charlestonians with personal memories of the not-so-distant past when C of C would not admit students of color.

    L-R: Millicent Brown, Mayor Tecklenburg, Dr. Jon Hale, Mr. Nerie Clark & Ms. Yvonne Clark Rhines (grandchildren), Pastor Timothy Bowman, Ridge Welch & Alexis Lain.

    Members of Septima Clark’s family assembled for the unveiling, sharing their memories of her.   Mayor Tecklenburg issued a proclamation honoring Clark. Charleston’s poet laureate, Marcus Amaker, read a poem written for the occasion. A portrait of Clark by Jonathan Greene was unveiled later in the day.

    Attendees included Emma Septima Clark, whose dad, Dr. Jon Hale, taught C of C Teaching Fellows about Septima Clark’s life & work.

    As discussed in an earlier blog post, C of C students & future teachers who admired Septima Clark’s work as an educator and activist conceived of this project and did most of the work and fundraising necessary to make it happen.

  • A great conference took place on campus at the end of April: the Jewish Historical Society of South Carolina explored the topic “Memory, Monuments, Memorials.” Discussions of monuments and memorials, how to combat legacies of oppression, and how to confront difficult histories. These were important discussions. You can listen to the sessions you missed here.

More interesting and important things are also happening around the city.

During the past month, the City Gallery has exhibited “WOKE: Rattling Bones, Conversations, Sacred Rites and Holy Places.” In late April, as part of the exhibit’s run, Ade Ofunniyin led a fascinating presentation on the Anson Street Burial Project, which is sponsored by The Gullah Society. The exhibit is over but everyone should know about this ongoing research on the community of people who were buried at the corner of Anson & George Streets.  Also, on May 5, the City unveiled a new historic marker commemorating an event some historians are now saying may be the first Memorial Day, in which freedpeople honored Union soldiers who’d died in a Charleston prison camp & were buried in a mass grave there. The Program in Southern Studies is pleased to see our city beginning to commemorate and confront these significant moments in the life of our city.

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Thanks to the leadership of C of C students, a new historic marker identifying the birthplace of educator and Civil Rights activist Septima Clark will be unveiled at 105 Wentworth Street on May 3. This past week I spoke about the project with Alexis (Aly) Lain, a C of C junior who’s double majoring in English and Secondary Education. Aly and other Teaching Fellows have been working since Fall 2016 to make this happen.

How did you learn about Septima Clark? What gave you the idea of putting up a marker?

Aly Lain

I first learned about Septima Clark when I was in my Foundations of Education 201 class. That class was a lot of fun because I’m in Teaching Fellows and my whole Teaching Fellows cohort was in that class taught by Dr. Hale. When we were looking at the foundations of education, we focused on South Carolina education, and as we were going through the timeline and we reached the Civil Rights era, we started talking about Septima Clark. And Dr. Hale first mentioned that she was born at 105 Wentworth Street which was right around the corner, but there was no marker or anything there for her, and as soon as he said that, he kept going on with the lesson, but someone’s hand went up and said “Wait, what do you mean there’s nothing there?” We were all just so shocked and surprised, and so we talked about that for a few minutes, the way there’s so many people, Clark included, whose names and stories get forgotten.

City Paper photo of Aly and Ridge at a rally in January, speaking about taking inspiration from Septima Clark

After class I remember going into our Teaching Fellows lounge and one of my best friends, Ridgeland, was there, and he said, “Aly, you know, I think we could do it. I was looking it up and I think we could do a marker if we wanted to.” So we got all excited and we called someone, right then and there, Dr. Foley at the South Carolina Historical Society in Columbia. We asked him what would be needed to put up a marker, and told him how wanted to honor Septima, and he seemed interested; he encouraged us. It just became important to us, this woman who was born so close to the Education Center, whose name we see on a street sign, to do something more for her on our campus, something she deserved.

What have you learned from Septima Clark, and what do you want other people to know about her?

I think one thing that draws me to Septima so much is that not only did she serve the Civil Rights movement—in everything she did, she was an asset–but she was also an enabler, an encourager. She did go out and do things, but she also taught others how to follow her, with her work in voter registration and Folk Schools. She was opening up doors for the people around her. It was all about bringing this community forward to make a change.

Aly and Ridge say this is one of their favorite photos of Septima Clark. (Septima Clark Papers, Avery Research Center)

This is one of my favorite quotes from her: “I just tried to create a little chaos. Chaos is a good thing. God created the world out of it. Change is what comes of it.” I just love the fact that she was trying to disrupt this system that was constructed against her from the very start. Just make a little chaos, make a little change.

How did you get the funding for this marker?

We started the first semester of my sophomore year (Fall 2016). The rest of our Teaching Fellows—the way we all rallied together for this project was just astounding and so heartwarming. We first had to collect donations for an initial deposit and send in a draft of our proposal, the text of the marker. Once the idea of the marker was approved officially, that’s when we started the real-deal fundraising, because we were looking at around two thousand dollars. We did a percentage night at Chipotle, raising over $800 at that event, and we also had a lot of different donations. Ms. Jennifer Dane, whom Dr. Hale had met at a conference in Ohio, learned about our project and she was somehow inspired by us (which is in turn inspiring, it’s very cool how these things always inspire people and then you’re inspired, back and forth). She gave us a wonderful donation that allowed us to get that last bit for the marker itself. Also, we’ve been working on a portrait [of Septima Clark] by Jonathan Green. To fund that portrait, our community has really contributed, in a way that’s been very kind.

What’s the significance of Jonathan Green doing the portrait?

In my opinion, there are few people who capture Charleston as well as Jonathan Green does. He really tries to capture Gullah culture—he’s trying to tell the story of people whose stories might not have been recognized and to paint them in a way that represents the creativity and the vitality that they exhibit.

C of C Teaching Fellows, F 2017

Nice work, y’all!

Join Aly and other Teaching Fellows for the unveiling of the historic marker at 105 Wentworth Street. Thursday, May 3, 10 am.

 

 

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This year, the series When The War Is Over: Memory, Division, and Healing began as a loose collection of events at the College that focused on painful, traumatic, or shameful histories. How can we collectively remember, understand, and attempt to repair past suffering and injustice? To accompany us on that continuing journey, the When the War Is Over series has a new logo: a new interpretation of a Sankofa representing the College community’s mission of learning from the past.[1]

 

Design by Liz Howell, C of C’s Division of Marketing and Communication

A Sankofa is a pictogram, one of many Adinkra symbols used in Ghana for several centuries. One writer notes that these symbols “can be viewed as a message and a legacy from the dead to the living. They are symbols and forms of teachable knowledge meant to guide the actions of the living as they struggle through this complex world.”[2]

“Sankofa,” translated as “Return and Fetch It,” represents a proverb: “It is not a taboo to return to fetch something you forgot earlier on.” (Se wo were fin a wo sankofa a yennkyi.)[3] There are two versions of a Sankofa pictogram—one a stylized heart shape, and the other a bird advancing forward while its head faces backward to pick up an egg.

In Charleston, an iron sculpture of a Sankofa bird can be seen outside the Unitarian Church on Archdale Street, part of a memorial to enslaved laborers who made the bricks for the church. This iron bird was created in 2013 by ironworkers in the Philip Simmons Studio, where twenty-first century artisans continue traditions that Charleston’s most famous ironworker learned from former slaves,[4] who were continuing a much older West African ironworking tradition.[5] Ironworked Sankofa hearts adorn the steeple of St. Louis Cathedral in New Orleans, a port city where, as in Charleston, many skilled artisans were enslaved people, some born in Africa.

Memorial to enslaved brickmakers, Unitarian Universalist Church, Charleston, SC, 21st century

Spire of St. Louis Cathedral in New Orleans

Philip Simmons gate, 9 Stolls Alley, mid-20th century

 

 

 

Photo by Brian Graves, published in “Interpreting African American History at McLeod Plantation,” Studies in American Culture, Vol. 39, No. 1 (2015).

A Sankofa bird may be glimpsed on James Island at McLeod Plantation. This Sankofa, in fading paint, appears on a wooden sign at the entrance to the cemetery that identifies “The Sacred Burial Site of Our African Ancestors.” In 2015, this sign became infamous after a white supremacist photographed himself in front of it. Weeks later, when this young man murdered nine members of AME Emanuel during a Bible study, he explained his massacre by stating falsehoods about African Americans and our shared history.

We cannot ignore the Sankofa’s message of return and fetch it: we must explore our pasts and recall what some have forgotten. As more events and programs are presented next year under the banner of When the War Is Over, we will display our Sankofa and the Cistern to illustrate our resolve to learn from the past and forge a hopeful collective future.

__________________

Mr. Philip Simmons, Blacksmith, 1995. Avery Research Center & Lowcountry Digital Library. http://lcdl.library.cofc.edu/lcdl/catalog/lcdl:57994

“You know what I be thinking? That someday I’ll be putting some of those things together again. [You] look backward to see forward. To see forward, that’s the question.”[6]

Mr. Philip Simmons, 1992

 

[1] Many thanks to Liz Howell of the College’s Marketing Division for creating this logo.

[2] SAGE Encyclopedia of African Cultural Heritage in North America.

[3] Richard F. Brush Art Gallery, St. Lawrence University.

[4] In the 1990s, Philip Simmons expressed his admiration for Charleston blacksmiths of earlier centuries, stating, “The old work was good. The scrolls were curved nice and round. If you see it curve like that it’s either two hundred years old or I did it.” (Charleston Blacksmith: The Work of Philip Simmons. John Michael Vlach. U of SC Press, 1992, pg. 32.)

[5] Dr. Ade Ofunniyin, an artist and adjunct professor at C of C who is the grandson of Mr. Philip Simmons, has confirmed that the Sankofa motif is present in the work of Philip Simmon and others, including blacksmith Carlton Simmons, who work at the Simmons Studio. “So much of what Mr. Simmons created was inspired and connected to a ‘rooted’ way of being,” his grandson commented in an email (4.13.2018).

[6] Charleston Blacksmith: The Work of Philip Simmons, Revised Edition. John Michael Vlach. U of SC Press, 1992, pg. 121.)

under: African American Studies, C of C Program in Southern Studies, Charleston History, Events, Uncategorized
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Faculty & Students Helping Us Understand the South Apr 9

Posted by: Julia Eichelberger | April 6, 2018 | No Comment |

Join us on April 9 at 3:30 PM in Addlestone Library. Faculty and students who’ve been studying the South will talk about how they share their knowledge with the public. There will be snacks! Drop by and hear the presentations and Q & A, from 3:30-4:45.

Many thanks to the panel participants, the Dean’s office in the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, and Vincent Fraley & Addlestone Library for letting us use Addlestone 227.

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Course Offerings Fall & Summer 2018

Posted by: Julia Eichelberger | March 22, 2018 | No Comment |

What a great line-up!  Here are the course offerings for Summer and Fall 2018 that count for the minor in Southern Studies.

Summer 2018

ARTH 333 – Trad Design & Pres in Charleston – Prof. Muldrow – May 14-29 – MTWRF 8:30-12:00

ARTH 290 – Architecture & Urbanism of the Lowcountry – Prof. N. Walker – May 14-29 – MTWRF 8:30-12:00

ECON 360 – The U. S. Casino Industry – Prof. D. Walker – May 14-29 – MTWRF 8:30-12:00  Prereqs: ECON 200 & 201 and MATH 104 or the equivalent.

EDFS 201 – Foundations of Education – TBA – 6/1-6/28 – MTWRF – 2:45-4:45

ENGL 313 – African American Literature – Prof. Frazier – 5/14-6/25 – Online  Prereqs: ENGL 110 or the equivalent.

ENGL 362 – American Regionalism – Prof. Duvall – 5/14-6/25 – Online  Prereqs: ENGL 110 or the equivalent.

HIST 225 – History of South since 1865 – Prof. Ingram – 5/14-5/29 – MTWRF – 8:30-12:00  Prereqs: HIST 115 & 116 or the equivalent.

MUSC 222-01 – All That Jazz: A Guided Tour of America’s Music – Prof. Vassilandonakis – 5/14-5/29 – Online

MUSC 222-02 – Like a Rolling Stone: History and Development of Rock Music- Prof. Vassilandonakis – 5/14-5/29 – Online   ALSO  OFFERED 6/1-6/28 – Online

RELS 250 – Religion in America – Prof. Lowe – 5/14-5/29 – Online

Fall 2018 

SOST 200 – Intro to Southern Studies – Prof. Eichelberger – TR 1:40-2:55 Prereqs: ENGL 110 or the equivalent. 

AAST 300-01 – The Life and Writings of James Baldwin – Prof. Crabtree – T 4:00-6:45

ARTH 338 – Amer Vernacular Arch & Mat Cul – Prof. Gilmore – MWF 9:00-9:50 Prereqs: 6 credits in ARTH 101-499 OR ARTH 299 OR HPCP 199.

ARTH 396 -The Architecture of Memory: Memorials, Monuments, Museums – Prof. Walker – MW 2-3:15

BIOL 338 – Entomology – Prof. Scholten – TR 10:50-12:05 (Lab F 1:00-5:00) Prereqs: BIOL 111 & 112 or the equivalent. 

EDFS 201 – (multiple sections) Foundations of Education – TBA – MW 11:00-12:15, MW 12:30-1:45, TR 9:25-10:40, TR 10:50-12:05, R 4:00-6:45

ENGL 313 – African American Literature – Prof. Martin – MW 4:00-6:45 Prereqs: ENGL 110 or the equivalent. 

ENGL 360 – Coming of Age in the South – Prof. Eichelberger – TR 10:50-12:05 Prereqs: ENGL 110 or the equivalent. 

GEOG 219 – Reading the Lowcountry Landscape – Prof. Watson – Online

GEOL 213 – Natural Hazards – Prof. Jaume’ – MWF 10:00-10:50  Prereqs: GEOL 101 or GEOL 103.

GEOL 257 – Marine Geology – Prof. Sautter – TR 10:50-12:05 (Lab-01 T 1:45-4:45, Lab-02 W 2:00-5:00)  Prereqs: GEOL 101 or GEOL 103 & 105.

HPCP 285 – Drawing Charleston – Prof. Muldrow – W 1:00-4:00  Prereqs: HPCP 199.

HPCP 299-01 – Preservation Planning Studio – Prof. Ward – M 2:00-5:00   HPCP 299-02  – Prof. Ward – R 2:00-5:00  Prereqs: HPCP 199.

HIST 210 (JWST 315) – Southern Jewish History – Prof. Rabin – TR 3:05-4:20

HIST 216-02 – African American History to 1865 – TBA – MWF 10:00-10:50 Prereqs: HIST 115 & 116 or the equivalent. 

HIST 320 – Charleston Architecture – Prof. Stockton – T 6:00pm-8:45pm Prereqs: HIST 115 & 116 or the equivalent. 

JWST 315 (HIST 210) – Southern Jewish History – Prof. Rabin – TR 3:05-4:20 Prereqs: HIST 115 & 116 or the equivalent. 

MUSC 222-04 – Like a Rolling Stone: History and Development of Rock Music- Prof. Vassilandonakis –  – Online

MUSC 365 – Ensemble: Gospel Choir – Prof. Weeks – TBA

RELS 298-02 – Black Atlantic Religions – Prof. Lowe – MWF 1:00-1:50

 

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Remembering Reconstruction: Events Mar 12-17

Posted by: Julia Eichelberger | March 7, 2018 | No Comment |

A whole slew of events related to the CLAW Reconstitution Conference are happening next week. More info on the conference can be found here, but I thought it might help to have a listing of the public events (below and in this MS Word document). If interested in registering for the entire conference, please contact Adam Domby.

Mon March 12, 12 pm, Arnold Hall: Informal Brown Bag lunch hosted by the Center for Southern Jewish Culture. The Center’s current research fellow, Brian Neumann, will talk about the nullification crisis in South Carolina in the 1830s.

Tuesday, March 13, 4 pm, Maybank 207. Faculty Seminar with Dr. David Gleeson: “Slavery and War in the Atlantic World: The Case of Confederate Georgia.”

Wed March 14 6 pm: Addlestone Library, Room 360 Ethan Kytle & Blaine Roberts on Old Slave Mart Museum & their new book, Denmark Vesey’s Garden: Slavery and Memory in the Cradle of the Confederacy (a book about historical memory in Charleston. History professor and conference co-organizer Adam Domby, who’s seen the book already, says, “This is a book Charlestonians will want to read—it will challenge them to see the city in a new way.”)  RSVP Here

Wed Mar 14 7 pm, Addlestone Library, Room 227 Michael Cohen of Tulane University, “After Appomatox: Reconstruction and America’s Jews”

Thurs March 15, at 6pm, Charleston County Library (68 Calhoun Street). Blaine Roberts and Ethan Kytle talk about the Calhoun Monuments. Booksigning will follow.

Friday March 16, 2:30 pm: Unveiling of 1868 Constitutional Convention Historic Marker.  South of Meeting and Broad Streets intersection, adjacent to Waring Judicial Center garden

Friday March 16, 3:30 pm, “W.E.B. Du Bois, Black Reconstruction, and the New History of Emancipation” 3rd floor of Addlestone library   RSVP here

Friday March 16, 6  pm. “Who Was Reconstruction For?” Conference keynote by  Bruce Baker. Wells Fargo Distinguished Public Lecture Series. 3rd floor of Addlestone library    RSVP here

Saturday March 17, 3 pm “The Making of Reconstruction Era National Monument: A Round Table” 3rd floor of Addlestone library   RSVP here

under: African American Studies, C of C Program in Southern Studies, Charleston History, Historic Buildings, Markers, Monuments, Racial Disparities, Religion in the South, SC, Southern Jewish History, Uncategorized

Memory, Division, and Healing, within and beyond the South

Posted by: Julia Eichelberger | February 22, 2018 | No Comment |

This semester, numerous lectures and public conversations on campus are focusing on ways that human beings throughout the world remember and memorialize experiences of trauma, oppression, or war.

Simon Lewis, who first took notice of a common theme in events sponsored by many separate programs, has been publicizing all the events together under the collective title “When The War Is Over: Memory, Division, and Healing.”

We’ve already learned much from a presentation on how architecture can influence the way we remember and mourn a tragedy, and from two inspiring discussions of how writers and activists try to make their communities more just and inclusive. Upcoming presentations will explore the unfinished work of unburying stories of the past, repairing and restoring communities, and cultivating peace. Here are some events during the next two weeks:

Fri Feb 23: If you missed the January presentation by the authors of We Are Charleston (a history of the Emanuel AME congregation), all three authors will be speaking again on Friday Feb 23, 630 pm, Stern Center Ballroom.

Tues Feb 27: Julia Eichelberger, “Reconstruction’s Traces and Erasures in Gullah Narratives of Charleston,” 12-1:30 pm Addlestone 227

Wed Feb 28: Visiting scholar Devyn Spence Benson speaks on “Anti-racism in Cuba: The Unfinished Revolution,” 5 pm,  Addlestone 227

Mon Mar 5 Rhonda Swickert, “Cultivating Peace Within the Self” 4-5 pm, Stern Center Ballroom

Tues Mar 6 Lisa Covert and David Slucki, “Truth and Reconciliation,” 4-6 pm, Stern Center Ballroom

Tues Mar 6: Visiting scholar Deirdre Cooper Owens “Medical Bondage: How Slavery Advanced American Gynecology.” Addlestone 227, 6pm.

The intersections among these presentations are intriguing and powerful; we’re looking forward to continuing discussions in face-to-face conversations and on this blog.

under: C of C Program in Southern Studies, Charleston, Events, Faculty

Lessons from and for a changing South

Posted by: Julia Eichelberger | December 15, 2017 | No Comment |

Military exercises are conducted in Marion Square in Charleston, South Carolina, with the Calhoun Monument at left, circa. 1907. Library of Congress/Detroit Publishing Co.

Part 6 & last for 2017 in the series “What We’re Saying About the South.”

This fall Harlan Greene (head of Special Collections) and Bernard Powers (History) have been serving on a city commission charged with revising the wording on Charleston monuments. The proposed new wording of the Calhoun monument, as reported this week in the Post and Courier, would tell visitors that the statue towering over Marion Square “remains standing today as a reminder that many South Carolinians once viewed Calhoun as worthy of memorialization even though his political positions included his support of race-based slavery, an institution repugnant to the core ideas and values of the United States of America.”

Harlan Greene

A year ago, Harlan Greene–novelist, historian, and native Charlestonian–was talking about our city’s past and future to a Post and Courier writer, in an interview that continues to resonate. One particularly memorable comment: “Some traditions need to die to have other ones rise in their place. They will.”

We expect and hope that in the coming year, those who study the South will be sharing more of their expertise and insights with the public. So we’ll keep readers posted on what we say about the South in 2018.

under: Charleston, Charleston History, Markers, Monuments, Uncategorized

Studying the City

Posted by: Julia Eichelberger | December 13, 2017 | No Comment |

Grant Gilmore

Notecards based on Ralph Muldrow’s watercolors.

Part 5 of “What We’re Saying About the South.” Grant Gilmore (Historic Preservation) is eagerly promoting the College’s new program in Community Planning, Policy, and Design.

Ralph Muldrow

Ralph Muldrow (Art and Architectural History) has created watercolors of the Porgy Houses that were decorated in honor of the 2016 Spoleto production of Porgy and Bess.

Karen Chandler

Arts Management professor and program director Karen Chandler talked to Art Mag about her research on Charleston’s jazz heritage.

A study sponsored by the Race and Social Justice Initiative, released this fall, documents in sobering detail the racial disparities that currently exist in the Charleston area. Patricia Williams Lessane (Director of the Avery Research Center) and John White (Dean of Libraries), coprincipals of RSJI, commissioned the study.

John White

Patricia Williams Lessane

 

 

under: Charleston, Charleston History, Faculty, Historic Buildings, Music, Racial Disparities

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