Crosswalk Laws

By | September 23, 2015

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APPLICABLE STATE & CITY LAWS:

VULNERABLE ROADWAY USERS

 

PEDESTRIANS

SECTION 56-5-3110

Pedestrian obedience to traffic-control devices and traffic regulations

 

(a) A pedestrian shall obey the instructions of any official traffic-control device specifically applicable to him unless otherwise directed by a police officer.

 

(b) Pedestrians shall be subject to traffic and pedestrian-control signals as provided in Sections 56-5-970 and 56-5-990.

 

(c) At all other places pedestrians shall be accorded the privileges and shall be subject to the restrictions stated in this chapter.

 

SECTION 56-5-3120

Local regulations

 

Local authorities may by ordinance require that pedestrians shall strictly comply with the directions of any official traffic-control signal and may by ordinance prohibit pedestrians from crossing any roadway in a business district or any designated highways except in a crosswalk.

 

SECTION 56-5-3130

Pedestrians’ right-of-way in crosswalks

 

(a) When traffic-control signals are not in place or not in operation the driver of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way, slowing down or stopping if need be to yield to a pedestrian crossing the roadway within a crosswalk when the pedestrian is upon the half of the roadway upon which the vehicle is traveling or when the pedestrian is approaching so closely from the opposite half of the roadway as to be in danger.

 

(b) No pedestrian shall suddenly leave a curb or other place of safety and walk or run into the path of a vehicle which is so close as to constitute an immediate hazard.

 

(c) Subsection (a) shall not apply under the conditions stated in subsection (b) of Section 56-5-3150.

 

(d) Whenever any vehicle is stopped at a marked crosswalk or at any unmarked crosswalk at an intersection to permit a pedestrian to cross the roadway, the driver of any other vehicle approaching from the rear shall not overtake and pass such stopped vehicle.

 

SECTION 56-5-3140

Pedestrian shall use right half of crosswalk

 

Pedestrians shall move, whenever practicable, upon the right half of crosswalks.

 

SECTION 56-5-3150

Crossing at other than crosswalks

 

(a) Every pedestrian crossing a roadway at any point other than within a marked crosswalk or within an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles upon the roadway.

 

(b) Any pedestrian crossing a roadway at a point where a pedestrian tunnel or overhead pedestrian crossing has been provided shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles upon the roadway.

 

(c) Between adjacent intersections at which traffic-control signals are in operation pedestrians shall not cross at any place except in a marked crosswalk.

 

(d) No pedestrian shall cross a roadway intersection diagonally unless authorized by official traffic-control devices and when authorized to cross diagonally pedestrians shall cross only in accordance with the official traffic-control devices pertaining to such crossing movements.

 

SECTION 56-5-3160

Pedestrians on highways

 

(a) Where a sidewalk is provided and its use is practicable, it shall be unlawful for any pedestrian to walk along and upon an adjacent roadway.

 

(b) Where a sidewalk is not available any pedestrian walking along and upon a highway shall walk only on a shoulder as far as practicable from the edge of the roadway.

 

(c) Where neither a sidewalk nor a shoulder is available, any pedestrian walking along and upon a highway shall walk as near as practicable to an outside edge of the roadway and, if on a two-way roadway, shall walk only on the left side of the roadway.

 

(d) Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, any pedestrian upon a roadway shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles upon the roadway.

 

SECTION 56-5-3170

Pedestrians prohibited on freeways

 

(A) No person as a pedestrian, unless otherwise directed by a law enforcement officer, shall occupy any space within the limits of the roadway and shoulder of the main facility of a freeway, except to perform public works or official duties, as a result of an emergency caused by an accident or breakdown of a motor vehicle, or to obtain assistance.

 

The prohibitions imposed by this subsection on the use of freeways do not apply to service roads alongside the highways.

 

(B) A person who violates the provisions of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction, must be fined not more than one hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than thirty days.

 

SECTION 56-5-3180

Pedestrians soliciting rides or business

 

(a) No person shall stand in a roadway for the purpose of soliciting a ride.

 

(b) Except when authorized by the provisions of Section 5-27-910, no person shall stand on a highway for the purpose of soliciting employment, business, or contributions from the occupant of any vehicle.

 

(c) No person may stand on or in proximity to a street or highway for the purpose of soliciting the watching or guarding of any vehicle while parked or about to be parked on a street or highway.

 

SECTION 56-5-3190

Only blind or incapacitated person may raise certain canes

 

It is unlawful for any person, unless totally or partially blind or otherwise incapacitated, while on any public street or highway to carry in a raised or extended position a cane or walking stick which is white in color or white tipped with red.

 

SECTION 56-5-3200

Vehicle shall stop for pedestrian guided by dog or raising cane

 

Whenever a pedestrian is crossing or attempting to cross a public street or highway, guided by a guide dog or carrying in a raised or extended position a cane or walking stick which is white in color or white tipped with red, the driver of every vehicle approaching the intersection or place where such pedestrian is attempting to cross shall bring his vehicle to a full stop before arriving at such intersection or place of crossing and before proceeding shall take such precautions as may be necessary to avoid injuring such pedestrian.

SECTION 56-5-3210

Penalties for violating Sections 56-5-2720, 56-5-3190, or 56-5-3200

 

A person who violates any of the provisions of Sections 56-5-3190, 56-5-3200, or 56-5-2720 is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction, must be punished by a fine not exceeding twenty-five dollars or imprisonment for not exceeding ten days.

 

SECTION 56-5-3220

Effect of failure of incapacitated person to carry walking stick or cane,

or to be guided by dog.

 

Nothing contained in Sections 56-5-3190 and 56-5-3200 shall be construed to deprive any totally or partially blind or otherwise incapacitated person not carrying such a cane or walking stick or not being guided by a dog of the rights and privileges conferred by law upon pedestrians crossing streets or highways, nor shall the failure of such totally or partially blind or otherwise incapacitated person to carry a cane or walking stick or to be guided by a guide dog upon the streets, highways, or sidewalks of this State to be held to constitute or be evidence of contributory negligence.

 

SECTION 56-5-3230

Drivers to exercise due care

 

Notwithstanding other provisions of any local ordinance, every driver of a vehicle shall exercise due care to avoid colliding with any pedestrian or any person propelling a human-powered vehicle and shall give an audible signal when necessary and shall exercise proper precaution upon observing any child or any obviously confused, incapacitated or intoxicated person.

 

SECTION 56-5-3240

Driving through safety zone prohibited

 

No vehicle shall at any time be driven through or within a safety zone.

 

SECTION 56-5-3250

Pedestrians’ right-of-way on sidewalks

 

The driver of a vehicle crossing a sidewalk shall yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian and all other traffic on the sidewalk.

 

SECTION 56-5-3260

Pedestrians yield to authorized emergency vehicles

 

(a) Upon the immediate approach of an authorized emergency vehicle making use of an audible signal meeting the requirements of Section 56-5-4970 and visual signals meeting the requirements of Section 56-5-4700, or of a police vehicle properly and lawfully making use of an audible signal only, every pedestrian shall yield the right-of-way to the authorized emergency vehicle.

 

(b) This section shall not relieve the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons using the highway nor from the duty to exercise due care to avoid colliding with any pedestrian.

 

SECTION 56-5-3270

Pedestrians under influence of alcohol or drugs

 

A pedestrian who is under the influence of alcohol, or any drug, to a degree which renders himself a hazard shall not walk or be upon a highway except a sidewalk.

 

SECTION 56-5-3280

Bridge and railroad signals

 

(a) No pedestrian shall enter or remain upon any bridge or approach thereto beyond the bridge signal, gate or barrier after a bridge operation signal indication has been given.

 

(b) No pedestrian shall pass through, around, over or under any crossing gate or barrier at a railroad grade crossing or bridge while such gate or barrier is closed or is being opened or closed.

 

BICYCLISTS
SECTION 56-5-3410

Applicability of article to bicycles

 

The provisions of this article are applicable to bicycles whenever a bicycle is operated upon any highway or upon any path set aside for the exclusive use of bicycles, subject to those exceptions stated in this article.

 

SECTION 56-5-3420

Rights and duties of bicyclists generally

 

A person riding a bicycle upon a roadway must be granted all of the rights and is subject to all of the duties applicable to the driver of a vehicle by this chapter, except as to special provisions in this article and except as to those provisions of this chapter which by their nature can have no application.

 

 

 

SECTION 56-5-3425

Bicycle lanes

 

(A) For purposes of this section, “bicycle lane” means a portion of the roadway or a paved lane separated from the roadway that has been designated by striping, pavement markings, and signage for the preferential or exclusive use of bicyclists.

 

(B) Whenever a bicycle lane has been provided adjacent to a roadway, operators of:

 

(1) motor vehicles may not block the bicycle lane to oncoming bicycle traffic and shall yield to a bicyclist in the bicycle lane before entering or crossing the lane; and

 

(2) bicycles are required to ride in the bicycle lane except when necessary to pass another person riding a bicycle or to avoid an obstruction in the bicycle lane. However, bicyclists may ride on the roadway when there is only an adjacent recreational bicycle path available instead of a bicycle lane.

 

SECTION 56-5-3430

Riding on roadways and bicycle paths

 

(A) Except as provided in subsection (B), every bicyclist operating a bicycle upon a roadway shall ride as near to the right side of the roadway as practicable. A bicyclist may, but is not required to, ride on the shoulder of the roadway in order to comply with the requirements of this subsection.

 

(B) A bicyclist may ride in a lane other than the right-hand lane if only one lane is available that permits the bicyclist to continue on his intended route.

 

(C) When operating a bicycle upon a roadway, a bicyclist must exercise due care when passing a standing vehicle or one proceeding in the same direction.

 

(D) Bicyclists riding bicycles upon a roadway shall not ride more than two abreast except on paths or parts of roadways set aside for the exclusive use of bicycles.

 

SECTION 56-5-3435

Driver to maintain safe operating distance between motor vehicle and bicycle

 

A driver of a motor vehicle must at all times maintain a safe operating distance between the motor vehicle and a bicycle.

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION 56-5-3440

Manner of riding bicycles; number of persons which may be carried

 

A bicyclist propelling a bicycle may not ride other than upon or astride a permanent and regular seat attached to the bicycle. No bicycle may be used to carry more persons at one time than the number for which it is designed and equipped.

 

SECTION 56-5-3445

Harassing or throwing object at person riding bicycle; penalty

 

It is unlawful to harass, taunt, or maliciously throw an object at or in the direction of any person riding a bicycle. A person who violates the provisions of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction, must be fined not less than two hundred fifty dollars or imprisoned not more than thirty days, or both.

 

SECTION 56-5-3450

Clinging to vehicles prohibited

 

A person riding upon any bicycle, coaster, roller skates, sled, or toy vehicle may not attach it or them or himself to a vehicle upon a roadway.

 

SECTION 56-5-3460

Carrying articles

 

A bicyclist operating a bicycle may not carry any package, bundle, or article that prevents the rider from keeping at least one hand upon the handle bars.

 

SECTION 56-5-3470

Lamps and reflectors on bicycle

 

A bicycle when in use at nighttime must be equipped with a lamp on the front which must emit a white light visible from a distance of at least five hundred feet to the front and with a red reflector on the rear that must be visible from all distances from fifty feet to three hundred feet to the rear when directly in front of the lawful upper beams of head lamps on a motor vehicle. A lamp emitting a red light visible from a distance of five hundred feet to the rear may be used in addition to the red reflector.

 

SECTION 56-5-3480

Signaling turns; penalty

 

(A)(1) A bicyclist shall indicate a right turn by extending the left arm upward, by raising the left arm to the square, or by extending the right arm horizontally to the right.

 

(2) A bicyclist shall indicate a left turn by extending the left arm horizontally.

 

(3) A bicyclist shall indicate stopping or decreasing speed by extending the left arm or the right arm downward.

 

(B) A bicyclist is not required to give signals provided for in subsection (A) continuously if the hand or arm is needed to control the bicycle.

 

(C) A violation of this section is punishable by a fine of twenty-five dollars.

 

SECTION 56-5-3490

Brake on bicycle; penalty

 

A bicycle must be equipped with a brake that will enable the bicyclist to make the braked wheels skid on dry, level, clean pavement. A violation of this section is punishable by a fine of twenty-five dollars.

 

SECTION 56-5-3500

Violations of article; penalties

 

(A) Except as otherwise provided, in the absence of another violation being cited, a violation of this article by the driver of a motor vehicle is subject to a civil fine of up to one hundred dollars unless a bicyclist is injured as a result of the violation.

 

(B) In the absence of another violation being cited, a person driving a motor vehicle who violates a provision of this article and the violation is the proximate cause of a:

 

(1) minor injury to a bicyclist, must be assessed a civil fine of up to five hundred dollars; or

 

(2) great bodily injury, as defined in Section 56-5-2945, to a bicyclist, must be assessed a civil fine of not more than one thousand dollars.

 

SECTION 56-5-3515

Authorized police patrol bicycles; operating as emergency vehicles

 

(A) An authorized police patrol bicycle used as a part of a police bicycle patrol may exercise the privileges of an emergency vehicle provided in Section 56-5-760.

 

(B) An authorized police patrol bicycle may be equipped with a siren or the officer may utilize a whistle in the performance of his duties, or both.

 

(C) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 56-5-760(C), an authorized police patrol bicycle acting as an emergency vehicle is entitled to the exemptions of an authorized emergency vehicle if it makes use of an audible signal meeting the requirements of Section 56-5-4970 or visual signals meeting the requirements of Section 56-5-4700.

SECTION 19-121

Traffic laws apply to persons riding bicycles

 

Every person riding a bicycle upon a roadway shall be granted all of the rights and shall be subject to all of the duties applicable to the driver of a vehicle by the laws of this state declaring rules of the road applicable to vehicles or by the traffic regulations of this city applicable to the driver of a vehicle, except as to special regulations in this article and except as to those provisions of laws and regulations which by their nature can have no application.

 

SECTION 19-122

Obedience to traffic control devices

 

(A) Any person operating a bicycle shall obey the instructions of official traffic control signals, signs and other control devices applicable to vehicles, unless otherwise directed by a police officer.

 

(B) Whenever authorized signs are erected indicating that no right or left or U-turn is permitted, no person operating a bicycle shall disobey the direction of any such sign, except where such person dismounts from the bicycle to make any such turn, in which event such person shall then obey the regulations applicable to pedestrians.

 

SECTION 19-125

Riding on sidewalks

 

(A) No person shall ride or operate a bicycle upon any sidewalk in the city except:

 

(1) Children the age of twelve (12) and under may ride a bicycle having a wheel diameter of twenty-four (24) inches or less on any sidewalk except as otherwise herein prohibited.

 

(2) Where the sidewalk is designated by the traffic and transportation department as a shared-use path measuring at least eight (8) feet in width.

 

(3) Where the adjacent highway has a posted speed limit of thirty-five (35) miles per hour or more, adults and children may ride a bicycle on the adjacent sidewalk except as otherwise herein prohibited or if there is a dedicated bicycle lane on the adjacent highway.

 

(B) Unless designated otherwise, go upon any sidewalk in a school overlay zone or in commercially zoned area on the peninsula as delineated on the zoning map of the city and as the zoning map may hereafter be amended by the ordinances of the city.

 

(C) Bicycles shall not be operated in a reckless manner. Any person permitted in the above subsections to ride or operate a bicycle on a sidewalk shall at all times ride or operate the bicycle with due care and yield the right-of-way to pedestrians using the sidewalk.

 

(D) Where permitted on sidewalks, bicycles shall not be ridden or operated in a manner which causes damage to public or private property.

 

(E) A person riding a bicycle upon a roadway shall be granted all of the rights and is subject to all of the duties applicable to the driver of a vehicle as provided for by state law. The provisions of this section shall not diminish, detract from, or change state law regarding a bicyclist’s right to use all roadways in the city as permitted by state law.

 

(F) A police or code enforcement officer may operate a bicycle on the sidewalk when in the course and scope of their duties they determine in good faith that riding or operating a bicycle on the sidewalk is necessary to perform their official duties.

 

(G) No person shall ride or operate a motorized bicycle, a rickshaw, a pedicab, or similar device upon a sidewalk or a shared-use path.

 

(H) Any person violating this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction, shall be subject to a maximum fine of fifty dollars ($50.00).

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