Quiz 2- Paige K Breen


I have been most excited for this class. Last semester I changed my major from marketing to supply chain management after really enjoying my business statistics class. I remember originally feeling discouraged about that class because of all the rumors I heard about it being so difficult and one of the worst classes you take while in college. I admit I thought about dropping business statistics before even going to class the first day. Thankfully I didn’t and I stuck through and showed up the first day bright and early at 9am. My professor was so helpful and made me really enjoy what I was doing and encouraged me to change my major from marketing to supply chain because of all the opportunities and how well I was doing in her class. Her encouragement truly opened a new path in my college career that I didn’t even for see.

The first few days we’ve covered basic terms such as what supply chain and sustainability are and how we can be sustainable. We went over Triple bottom line (people, power, planet 🙂 ) and we started to discuss businesses as a system that considered multiple perspectives. On our first day in class we played a game to have all of us start to grasp the concept of a supply chain and how there is so many moving parts. This name, known as the “beer game”, opened up the conversation to the concepts cradle to grave and cradle to cradle. Cradle to grave is a firms perspective on their environmental impact created by their products or activities from the beginning of its life cycle to its disposal. The C2G process focuses on reducing waste, but not entirely eliminating it. On the contrary, cradle to cradle is define as the the business strategy that regenerates products into new ones at the disposal of the original product. This means that each product although not brand new gets regenerated into a new product. This strategy focuses on eliminating waste entirely.

We had diplomat Yuri Arthur speak to us this week with two of her colleagues. She spoke about how she got into her career path and struggles she’s faced along the way. I was really intrigued to hear about the struggles she’s faced with working in government and how she balances her personal life with her career. She explained how she started her career in government and along the way has met her husband and has had a child and adopted a dog and how even though she gets relocated every 3 years to a new country, there is always hefty accommodations for her and her family. She gave us advice which was: don’t listen to others say you can’t because the only person who can say you can’t is the person who is interviewing you. Also, use your student resources as long as you can, meaning you should reach out to people in your community to discuss their path to their career and see if they can offer you advice while you’re still a student and learning your path. She gave really good advice and I was very happy to listen to all of her stories.

So far I am really enjoying this class and i’m very happy that I changed my major to supply chain.

Quiz 2 Abby Jones

In the last 3 days I have increased my knowledge of sustainability and green supply chain management by a lot. This is my first supply chain class and prior to this the only real information I had about supply chain was how important of a field it is. Over the past few days I have been able to really understand the definition and how sustainability is such an important aspect to it. I had never heard the meaning of a closed-loop supply chain or the differences between the cradle-to-grave and cradle-to-cradle approaches.

The class where the American College of Greece professor gave us a presentation on their efforts of increasing sustainability really opened my eyes to how countries, outside of the U.S., are adjusting to become more sustainable.

I found it very interesting that their non-profit had only been developed in recent years and how they are able to market sustainability to their students. I also had found the story of the introduction of reusable water bottled without refill stations to be interesting because we have had those for so long in schools in the U.S.

Before this class I had never heard of cradle-to-cradle certification and upon completing the cradle-to-cradle certification project I did not know that companies could be certified in this. I chose a company that I had no idea made these sustainable efforts and actually ended up doing a ton of research on their accomplishments throughout the world. We also discussed green-washing where companies claim to be environmentally friendly but may not be actually be sustainable and instead are just claiming false information.

Today’s presentation from the United States Embassy was probably my favorite to learn about within these past few days. I had no prior knowledge as to what a diplomat was before they came in

to talk to us. I find it quite fascinating that these government jobs can range from negotiating deals on fried chicken to dealing with the President of the United States. Today especially opened my eyes to job opportunities that I had deemed impossible for me to be interested in. However, the United States Embassies presentation was very informative and I left with a new point of view on this job. I found it especially interesting that diplomats get assigned to new countries every few years and never really know where they might end up next.

Overall, these past few days have increased my knowledge and interest in sustainability and green supply chain management.

Quiz 2

Over the last 3 days, I have learned the basics of supply chain management. This is my first class in supply chain management, which wasn’t something I was expecting to learn as a marketing major. But it is interesting how there are so many steps to produce everyday items, some of which are really cheap too. I think the most interesting thing I’ve learned about is how most products use materials sourced from multiple different countries. Which is crazy to think about, but in terms of sustainability, all of that travel has to use up lots of fossil fuels and other energy, which really makes you wonder if it’s worth it or not, just for really cheap prices. It has been interesting to see how the streets of Greece differ from the US. On a main street in the US, it’s filled with big box stores and department stores, with easy parking. But in downtown Athens, the stores are small, independently owned and a lot of the streets are only for pedestrians. I think the difference in consumer behavior is more sustainable especially in stores where the product is homemade, and this difference also just proves how different our ways of life are. We also went more into depth in terms of sustainability, and one of the main ways it is implemented is through a closed loop supply chain. Which differs from linear supply chain in that it also deals with what happens to the product after it’s been used and doesn’t work anymore. Linear supply chain only deals with the product from manufacturing, until it’s in the hands of consumers or at a retailer. It has been interesting to learn in this class how sustainability is being incorporated into different areas of business such as remanufacturing and industrial symbiosis. Both processes reduce waste by either fixing broken products, turning old products into something new, or selling waste to other companies for them to use in their manufacturing. Both are smart ideas, but you have to wonder why they weren’t implemented earlier when they seem so practical and obvious. During the Beer game I was able to learn alot about how a supply chain actually works, and not just in theory. I worked in the factory, and it was interesting to understand the balance between having too much inventory, and not enough, especially with the extended shipping delays. But overall by the end, I definitely felt I had a better understanding of how the supply chain operates. 

Quiz 2 – TJ Heck

Every time I travel, something is surprising and different about the place that I wasn’t anticipating. The biggest surprise for me on this trip was all of the smoking. The frequency, the amount, and the demographic who partake in the activity are really astounding. I start with this to then pivot and address the sustainability initiatives going on in Greece at present. It seems that, in my opinion, the citizens of Greece are more interested in the sustainability of the city around them, than they are in their own physical health! In terms of the supply chain, I believe it begins with what you put into your body before it can have an effect on the world around you. The traditional linear supply chain is now being phased out due to research about the environmental effects it leads. This traditional linear chain takes natural resources, turns them into a good or product, and then gets discarded. Similar to 99% of everything produced goes to waste just six months later. It’s terrible. It’s surprising to me that the closed-loop supply chain hasn’t gained traction sooner, as there is money to be made from the more sustainable practices. I guess that since it requires more work, and doesn’t play into the American ‘get rich quick’ query, it hasn’t been able to make an impact until something detrimental were to come of it, ie global warming, waste, pollution levels, etc. I think as time has gone on, many consumers are changing their attitudes in terms of consumption and realizing that there is no need to have excess things. Having said this, it makes for the perfect opportunity to purge the things we don’t need, in a sustainable way, to begin and help maintain a closed-loop supply chain. In a perfect world, closed-loop supply chains would be the only kind we know. This way, nothing would really go to waste, and everything would be used to create something else, therefore increasing the longevity of the smallest things. Closed-loop supply chains are very tough to achieve as there are only certifications out for companies, not individuals. These companies that are producing the goods and services that we buy are the ones responsible for overconsumption and pollution, as individuals are astronomically smaller comparatively. The change will come faster and more direct if it comes from the top. We as consumers and individuals can facilitate this through our consumer attitudes.

Chapter 2 Willbrand

Over the last three days, I have learned a lot about supply chain management. I did not know much about supply chain management and how to handle the supply chain in a sustainable manner. I learned the difference between linear and circular supply chain and the different types of waste management that comes along with them. The videos we watched made me think a lot about where all of the waste goes and especially about how waste gets dumped onto third-world countries that don’t have the infrastructure to handle it. It isn’t fair to these countries- especially when plastic products are pushed onto unsuspecting communities who did not ask for this large company intervention.

I also have learned a lot about circular and linear economies and how that affects how waste and how this can be done sustainably if handled properly. In a circular economy, there are bits of products that are remanufactured and simply used to reduce waste overall by simply not creating as much- this is essentially a cradle-to-cradle approach. Cradle-to-grave mirrors the linear economy where there is a plan for all portions of materials from inception to disposal. The main goal of cradle-to-grave is to eliminate waste in a responsible way.

Cradle-to-Cradle is by far the more sustainable option and it goes hand in hand with industrial symbiosis which is where different industries communicate with one another and find ways to use parts of a material that do not normally get used. This is a great way to be sustainable because it finds creative ways to use all portions and create less waste. So many things are useful in ways not seen at first glance and it just takes a different view point to see there is a different and better way to do things that is helpful to the environment as a whole.

Being in Greece has given me a very different perspective on consumerism and how obsessed the US is with buying stuff and how influential it is to the rest of the world and how it can negatively affect smaller countries that cannot compete with the US on that level. We are offered so much immediate convenience in the US that other countries simply do not prioritize, These countries have so much history and creative ways to preserve their communities in sustainable and environmentally conscious ways. The EU is such an influential force is incredibly helpful in helping keep countries accountable for their actions. Hopefully, the US can take a page out of Europe’s book and prioritize ways to use the new three rs and be a sustainable world leader. 

Quiz 2 – Darby Ewing

This week, we discussed chapter 1, 2, and 6. Before this class, I only knew the general overview of the supply chain. Throughout this week, I learned about how supply chain is the distribution of products and services through the factory level and onto the retail level. I learned that communication through the different stages can be difficult, and planning is essential to keep businesses afloat. I learned that there can be multiple forms of supply chains. The closed loop supply chain allows products to be kept in a circular motion, which allows sustainable practices to be present within the distribution process. This is unlike the traditional, linear method, where once products are delivered, they are completed. The products do not get to live another life. Within the closed loop supply chain, reverse logistics can be applied. This means that products can be recaptured from the original point of origin, which highlights sustainability. I learned that eco-design is important to the supply chain. I was not aware that 70 to 80 percent of costs to produce products are determined and fixed within the design stage of the product’s life cycle. This allows companies to consider environmentally friendly designs, or even incorporate the reuse of materials. This eco-design is considered the ultimate pollution prevention tool. There are five major steps for creating an eco-design product. Companies must assess environmental impacts, research the market, run ideas workshops through brainstorming, select design strategies, and design the product. Certain tools that should be added to eco-design products include simplicity, are easily obtainable, are precisely defined, are objective, valid, robust, and enhances understanding. Another topic I enjoyed learning about was pollution and how the supply chain is affected by it. Extraction is causing our planet to run out of resources, which in turn, trashes out planet. One-third of the natural resources have been consumed because of toxic chemicals. Humans create four billion pounds of pollution per year, which does not put our world in a good position for the future. This affects the supply chain by influencing companies to sell toxic junk as quickly as possible. 99 percent of products are trashed within six months. This has led to a decrease in overall happiness within our population. We need to address the problem that is creating a harmful environment for our future. Through a green supply chain, the world can have solutions to fix our damaged environment.

quiz 2


Before starting this class I had little knowledge on the green supply chain. I have taken multiple environmental classes in high school but those classes never mentioned the business side. I feel recently the concept of a green supply chain has gained more attention from businesses as people are beginning to see the outcome of unsustainable habits. A green supply chain refers to the integration of eco-friendly practices and initiatives throughout the entire supply chain. This includes sourcing raw materials and proper product disposal. The goals of a green supply chain is to minimize environmental impact, protect resources, and encourage environmentally sustainable habits. It was disappointing to learn how harmful a company’s supply chain can be on our planet. When going down each process in a company’s supply chain there is a great amount of unnecessary waste that is accumulated. Often this waste is single use and never disposed of correctly. 

Green washing was an interesting topic I never knew about. Essentially greenwashing is when a company lies about claiming they are taking part in environmental friendly actions. It is a way to promote their business and make people want to choose them because they are “sustainable”. I feel it is a totally unethical concept that will only hurt the company more when they get exposed for being untruthful. 

I learned about a certain type of supply chain management, a forward supply chain. A forward supply chain emphasizes on the flow of goods from the supplier to the customer. The process ensures that the correct product is being delivered to the right customer at the right time. Forward supply chain is a more linear and less complex process of producing goods and services. Reverse logistics is the opposite of a forward supply chain. It is the supply chain management that moves goods from customers back to the seller/manufacturer. An example of this would be a customer processing a return. Reverse logistics is a more difficult process which I did not know. I often return things through amazon so it was interesting to learn the complexity of a return and how it is completed. 

Furthermore, I learned the evolution of the traditional 3 R’s. I found it fascinating that the 3 R’s I grew up knowing are now not the most efficient way to be sustainable. Remanufacturing is now being introduced. Remanufacturing a method of remaking a product to its original requirements utilizing a combination of new, repaired, and old parts. greece

Chapter 2 Quiz

Over the past three days of classes, I have been immersed into the world of Green Supply Chain Management. I have learned about the concept of “greening” and the ways in which organizations can make their supply chains more environmentally friendly and sustainable. I was also introduced to the Cradle-to-Grave and Cradle-to-Cradle approaches and learned how they differ on the topic of waste. I found the idea of industrial symbiosis to be both an interesting and effective way of managing and repurposing waste. I also like the connection between eco-design/design for the environment and design-for-manufacturability because the design phase gives the most opportunity to act in a proactive, rather than reactive, capacity in regards to creating sustainable and environmentally sound products. Additionally, I feel that I now have a better understanding of reverse logistics, the vital component of a sustainable supply chain, and the differences between a linear and circular supply chain. It is now apparent to me that any organization looking to embrace Green Supply Chain Management must modify its existing traditional supply chain networks to reflect a closed-loop supply chain that allows for the introduction of reverse flows. On the topic of reverse logistics, it was interesting to hear about the new 3 Rs and how they expand upon the traditional 3 Rs. I was also curious about the fact that the textbook mentioned “every reverse logistics system should include gatekeeping, collection, and sortation” because I had never read this before so I’m interested to explore more about these apparently imperative concepts. Furthermore, when I read about the main problems with reverse logistics, I was pleasantly surprised to see that they were all easy to comprehend and they prompted me to deeply think about the ways in which they could be addressed and managed. I had also never before considered the different types of reverse logistics networks that retailers might employ. However, upon learning about the aforementioned, I thought that the third-party returns management RL network and return to suppliers RL network were interesting RL retailer networks because they limit the reverse logistics responsibilities of the organization in question and instead redirect it to other parties. I think this is a really good idea because in doing so, it seems that the reverse flows will be better handled and more effectively managed compared to a situation in which the organization producing the goods has to manage both the forward and reverse flows.






Quiz 2

On the first day, we first talked about what exactly a supply chain is and certain terms used that are used, like upstream and downstream, etc. We then discussed greenwashing. Greenwashing is where companies will say they’re going green just to be able to sell a product. For example, a company will have a sustainable promotion, like buying an item and we’ll donate one, for only a month and then stop. But, because of that one promotion people will associate that company with that one short promotion.

On the second day, we started off discussing the linear economy. This is where there is a linear relationship that flows up and down the supply chain. For example, you couldn’t jump from tier 1 to tier 3, you would have to go from tier 1 to tier 2 to tier 3. In class we discussed in a linear economy they use different ways to take care of the environment. Mostly reduce, reuse, and recycle. We then went on to discuss cradle-to-grave. This is a “firm’s perspective on the environmental impact created by their product or activities from the beginning of its lifecycle to the end”(video from class). In cradle-to-grave there is also no returning, no reusing, and no recycling. The key component of this is to reduce waste. At the end of the product’s lifecycle, they will do a lifestyle assessment (LSA) which will measure the impact of the product, service, or process. To do this assessment there are 5 steps.

Step 1: Why am I conducting this?

Step 2: Define the scope of the analysis. The who, what, when, where, and how.

Step 3: Collect background data

Step 4: Collect data by conducting interviews or surveying the site.

Step 5: Interpret data and create an action plan

Next, we learned cradle-to-cradle. This cycle mimics the regeneration cycle that is found in nature. The focus of it is to eliminate waste all together. It also uses a closed-loop system. In the video we watched it also talked about biological nutrient which is materials that can be absorbed back into nature, and technical nutrient that is used over and over again. This helps lower costs, improved competitiveness and reduce waste. Close-loop is not constantly a linear flow. It is a strategy aimed at optimizing resources used within industries so that sustainability can be achieved (recycling, sharing, leasing, and refurbishing). Resources are minimized or reduced. This economy is trying to eliminate waste. We also discussed industrial symbiosis. This is a mutually beneficial exchange of waste and by-products between three or more parties. One firm’s waste is another firm’s raw materials. We then discussed the benefits of sustainable responsible cooperation. It improves brand reputation, increase competitive advantage, access to new markets, increase market share due to sustainability positioning, reduce costs due to energy efficiency, better innovation in business models, innovation of products/services, reduce costs due to materials or waste efficiencies, improved regulatory compliance and better stakeholder/investor relationships. Lastly we talked about reverse logistics. This is where the end product needs new manufacturing or reused and goes back upstream.

Quiz 2

The past few days have grown my knowledge considerably in the supply chain and sustainability sectors. One of the most shocking things I’ve learned is how harmful certain activities are to the environment around us. Many companies are compromising our future due to incineration creating toxins that hurt both the planet and our health. Even the disposal of many products are being dumped in landfills, polluting the water and air. Recycling is a helpful activity but in the scope of things, it’s not enough to fix everything. As a whole getting rid of single-use items, ending fossil fuels, and striving for a zero-waste future is a priority. The idea of a closed loop system or a ‘crade-to-cradle’ approach eliminates waste all together and takes it a step further from ‘cradle-to-grave’ which simply focuses on eliminating less waste. Cradle-to-cradle is when waste is created by is designed to move to a new process, instead of discarding the waste is it used for something else. A cradle-to-cradle approach is effective because it drives economic growth, improves competitiveness, lowers costs, and increases resource efficiency all while promoting zero waste. Industrial symbiosis also focuses on sustainability while having a mutually beneficial exchange of waste and byproducts between three or more parties. One firms waste therefore become a useful product is another companies supply chain. Sustainability of a whole is all about meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. There are things constantly moving through the system and there is few regard to what happens to all of it after use and the disposal process. It is a materials economy and a linear system on a finite planet. A linear system is difficult to do in the long term. The system as a whole is very difficult to manage which is why what happens after the products get used is so often disregarded. Sustainability is quite easy to incorporate into our everyday lives to make for a better planet and environment for all. Some of the most common ways to do this is by utilizing reusable products as opposed to single use products that use an excessive amount of plastic. Drinking out of reusable water bottles, metal straws, taking tubberware of food, and reusable food bags instead of plastic can be extremely helpful to the environment and making our current situation different for future generations.